The Loyal Foreign Merchant Captain: Thomé Gaspar de León and the Making of Manila’s Intra-Asian Connections / El leal capitán mercante extranjero: Tomé Gaspar de León y la construcción de las conexiones intra-asiáticas ...

  • Kristie Patricia Flannery The University of British Columbia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9087-3048
  • Guillermo Ruiz-Stovel University of California, Los Angeles https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6873-8704
Palabras clave: Philippines, Intra-Asian Trade, Iberian Asia, Agent of Empire, Social Network Analysis, Filipinas, Comercio intraasiático, Asia ibérica, agente del imperio, análisis de redes sociales.

Resumen

This article presents a micro-historical analysis of the life of Thomé Gaspar de León, the South Indian-born Christian who became one of the most successful merchants in Manila’s intra-Asian trade, and one of the most trusted agents of the Hispanic monarchy in Asia in the mid-eighteenth century. Combining methodologies of social and economic history, this study provides new insight into patterns of empire-building in maritime Southeast Asia and the Pacific. It highlights Manila’s previously neglected role as an intra-Asian trading hub and reveals how its commercial connections to Batavia, Macao, and other regional port cities, forged by men like Gaspar de León, ultimately strengthened Spain’s Asian empire. / Ésta es una aproximación microhistórica a la vida de Tomé Gaspar de León, un cristiano nativo del sur de la India, quien a mediados del siglo XVIII se convertiría en uno de los más exitosos comerciantes intraasiáticos de Manila, así como uno de los más confiados agentes de la monarquía española en Asia. Combinando los métodos de la historia social y económica, este estudio brinda nuevas perspectivas sobre la construcción imperial en el sudeste asiático y el Pacífico. También resalta el minimizado papel de Manila como eje comercial intra-asiático y muestra como los nexos comerciales forjados por figuras como De León, en puertos como Macao o Batavia, fortalecieron la presencia española en Asia.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

Andrade, T. (2010): “A Chinese Farmer, Two African Boys, and a Warlord: Toward a Global Microhistory.” Journal of World History 21 (4), 573-591.

Aslanian, S. (2011): From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: the Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Baena Zapatero A.; Lamikiz X. (2014): “Presencia de una diáspora global: comerciantes armenios y comercio intercultural en Manila, c. 1660-1800”, Revista de Indias, 74 (262): 693-722.

Bhattacharya, B. (2008): “Making Money at the Blessed Place of Manila: Armenians in the Madras--Manila Trade in the Eighteenth Century”, Journal of Global History 3 (1): 1–20.

Barrio Muñoz, J.A. del (2012): Vientos de reforma ilustrada en Filipinas. El gobernador Fernando Valdés Tamón (1729-1739), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid.

Bassi, E. (2017): An Aqueous Territory: Sailor Geographies and New Granada’s Transimperial Greater Caribbean World, Duke University Press, Chapel Hill.

Bernabéu Albert, S., ed. (2013): Nao de China, 1565–1815: Navegación, comercio e intercambios culturales, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla.

Bernabéu Albert S. & Martínez Shaw, C., eds. (2013): Un océano de seda y plata: el universo económico del Galeón de Manila, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Sevilla.

Bonalian, M. (2012): El Pacífico hispanoamericano: política y comercio asiático en el imperio español, 1680-1784: la centralidad de lo marginal, Colegio de México, México, D.F.

Chang, J.O. (2017): “Four Centuries of Imperial Succession in the Comprador Pacific.” Pacific Historical Review, 86 (2): 192–222.

Chaunu, P. (1960): Les Philippines et le Pacifique des Ibériques (XVIe, XVIIe, XVIIIe siècles), S.E.V.P.E.N., Paris.

Cheong, W.E. (1970a): “Canton and Manila in the Eighteenth Century,” in N. Tarling & J. Ch’en (eds.), Studies in the Social History of China and Southeast Asia: Essays in Memory of Victor Purcell, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cheong, W.E. (1970b): “Changing the Rules of the Game (The India-Manila Trade: 1785-1809).” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 1 (2): 1–19.

Chia, L. (2006): “The Butcher, the Baker, and the Carpenter: Chinese Sojourners in the Spanish Philippines and their Impact on Southern Fujian (Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries)”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 49 (4): 509-534.

Chiang, B. (2011): “Market Price, Labor Input, and Relation of Production in Sarawak’s Edible Brids’ Nest Trade”, in E. Tagliacozzo & W. Chang (eds.), Chinese Circulations: Capital, Commodities, and Networks in Southeast Asia, Duke University Press, Durham, 407–431.

Cosano Moyano, J. (1986): Filipinas y su Real Hacienda (1750-1800), Publicaciones del Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Córdoba, Córdoba.

Dalrymple, A. (1786): Memoir of a Chart of the China Sea, George Bigg, London.
Escoto, S.P. (1999): “Expulsion of the Chinese and Readmission to the Philippines: 1764-1779”, Philippine Studies, 47 (1): 48-76.

Fang C.C. 方真真 (2012): Huaren yu Lüsong maoyi, 1657-1687: shiliao fenxi yu yizhu 華人與呂宋貿易, 1657–1687: 史料分析與譯註 (El comercio entre los sangleyes y Luzón, 1657–1687: análisis, traducción y anotación de las fuentes), Guoli Qinghua daxue chubanshe, Xinzhu.

Flannery, K.P. (2018): “The Seven Years’ War and the Globalization of Anglo-Iberian Imperial Entanglement: The View from Manila”, in J. Cañizares-Esguerra (ed.), Entangled Histories of the Early Modern Iberian and British Empires, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia: 236-254.

Flannery, K.P. (2019): “The Impossible Colony: Piracy, the Philippines, and Spain’s Asian Empire”, Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.

Flynn, D.O. and Giráldez A. (1995): “Born with a ‘Silver Spoon’: The Origin of World Trade in 1571”, Journal of World History, 6 (2): 201-221.

Flynn, D.O. and Giráldez A. (2002): “Cycles of Silver: Global Economic Unity Through the Mid-eighteenth Century”, Journal of World History, 13 (2): 391-427.

García, F. (1683): Vida y milagros de San Francisco Xavier, de la Compañía de Jesús, Imprenta de Antonio Ferrer y Balthazar Ferrer libreros, Barcelona.

García-Abásolo, A.F. (2008): “El mundo chino del imperio español (1570–1755)”, in M. Luque Talaván & M.M. Manchado López (eds.), Un océano de intercambios: Hispanoasia (1521–1898): Homenaje al profesor Leoncio Cabrero Fernández, Ministerio de Asuntos exteriores, Agencia Española de Cooperación internacional, Madrid.

García-Abásolo, A.F. (2012): Murallas de piedra y cañones de seda: chinos en el imperio español (siglos XVI–XVIII), Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba.

Gascoigne, J. (2014): Encountering the Pacific in the Age of the Enlightenment, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.

Gil, J. (2011): Los chinos en Manila: siglos XVI y XVII, Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau, Lisboa.

Ginzburg, C. (1980): The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth Century Miller, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Giráldez A. (2015): The Age of Trade: The Manila Galleons and the Dawn of the Global Economy, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland.

Goode, C. T. (2012); “Power in the Peripheries: Family Business and the Global Reach of the 18th-Century Spanish Empire.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona.

Hancock, D. (2009): Oceans of Wine: Madeira and the Emergence of American Trade and Taste, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Ireton, C. (2017): “’They Are Blacks of the Caste of Black Christians’: Old Christian Black Blood in the Sixteenth- and Early Seventeenth-Century Iberian Atlantic”, Hispanic American Historical Review, 97 (4): 579–612.

Kueh, J. (2013): “Parian Chinese Fictive Kinship and Credit in Seventeenth-Century Manila”, Philippine Studies: Historical & Ethnographic Viewpoints, 61 (3): 362–384.

Kueh, J. (2014): “The Manila Chinese: Community, Trade and Empire, c. 1570–c. 1770”, Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University.

Lee, C.H. (2016): “The Chinese Problem in the Early Modern Missionary Project of the Spanish Philippines”, Laberinto, 9: 5-32.

Malcolm, N. (2015): Agents of Empire: Knights, Corsairs, Jesuits and Spies in the Sixteenth-Century Mediterranean World, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mancini, J.M. (2016): “Disrupting the Transpacific: Objects, Architecture, War, Panic”, Colonial Latin American Review, 25 (1): 35-55.

Marichal, C. (2007): Bankruptcy of Empire: Mexican Silver and the Wars between Spain, Britain and France, 1760–1810, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Murillo Velarde, P. (1729): Sermones, certamen, y relación de la fiesta, con que solemnizó el máximo colegio de la Compañía de Jesús de Manila, la canonización de los dos nuevos astros de la Iglesia, S. Estanislao de Kostka, y San Luis Gonzaga, Imprenta de la Compañía de Jesús, por D. Sebastian López Sabino, Manila.

Murillo Velarde, P. (1752): Geografía Histórica, tomo VII. De Persia, del Mogol, de la India, y Sus Reinos, de la China, de la grande Tartaria, de las Islas de la India, y del Japón, Imprenta de Manuel de Moya, Madrid.

Ng, C.K. (1983): Trade and Society, the Amoy Network on the China Coast, 1683-1735, NUS Press, Singapore.

Pérez, E. (2011): “‘Saludos From Your Comadre’: Compadrazgo as a Community Institution in Alta California, 1769-1860s”, California History, 88 (4): 47–73.

Permanyer Ugartemendia, A. (forthcoming 2019): “Beyond the Galleons: China Trade, Colonial Agenda and Regional Integration in the Eighteenth-Century Philippines”, in J. Gommans & A. Cusi Lopez (eds.), Philippine Crossings: Entangled Voices Beween Oceans, c.1500-1800, Leiden University Press, Leiden.

Pike, R. (1978): “Penal Servitude in the Spanish Empire: Presidio Labor in the Eighteenth Century”, The Hispanic American Historical Review, 58 (1): 21-40.

Putnam, L. (2006): “To Study the Fragments/Whole: Microhistory and the Atlantic World”, Journal of Social History 39 (3): 615-630.

Quiason, S.D. (1966): English Country Trade With the Philippines, 1644-1765, University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City.

Subramanyam, S. (1993): The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700: A Political and Economic History, Longman, London and New York.

Reed, R.R. (1978): Colonial Manila: The Context of Hispanic Urbanism and Process of Morphogenesis, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Ruiz-Stovel, G. (2019): “Chinese Shipping and Merchant Networks at the Edge of the Spanish Pacific: the Minnan-Manila Trade, 1680–1840,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.

Tagliacozzo, E.; Chang, W., eds. (2011): Chinese Circulations: Capital, Commodities, and Networks in Southeast Asia, Duke University Press, Durham.

Tremml-Werner, B. (2015): Spain, China and Japan in Manila, 1571–1644: Local Comparisons and Global Connections, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

Tremml-Werner, B. (2017): “Marginal Players and Intra-Network Connections: New Perspectives on the Manila Trade, c. 1640–1780”, Renwen ji shehui kexue jikan人文及社會科學集刊 (Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy), 29 (4): 599–626.

Varela, C. (2013): “Microhistoria de un galeón: El Santo Niño y Nuestra Señora de Guía (1684–1689)”, in S. Bernabéu Albert & C. Martínez Shaw (eds.), Un océano de seda y plata: el universo económico del Galeón de Manila, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Sevilla.

Van Dyke, P. (2007): “Manila, Aomen, Guangzhou: jinmi xianglian de san zuo chengshi” 马尼拉, 澳门, 广州: 紧密相联的三座城市 (Manila, Macao, and Canton: the Ties That Bind), Guangdong shehui kexue 广东社会科学, 1: 120–127.

Vink, M.P.M. (2002): “Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea. The Christian Paravas: A ‘Client Community’ in Seventeenth Century Southeast India”, Itinerario, 26 (2): 64-98.

Warren, J.F. (2007): The Sulu Zone, 1768-1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State, 2nd ed., NUS Press, Singapore.

Yuste López, C. (1984): El comercio de la Nueva España con Filipinas, 1590-1785, México, D.F.: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Departamento de Investigaciones Históricas.

Yuste López, C. (2007): Emporios transpacíficos: comerciantes mexicanos en Manila, 1710-1815, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
Publicado
2020-01-31
Sección
Dossier